Sulzer GTC technology licensing

A global licensor for your process technologies and mass transfer solutions

Offering innovative, custom solutions for the refining, chemical, petrochemical and gas processing industries. Refining, petrochemical and chemical companies around the world rely on Sulzer GTC’s advanced technology to optimize production capacity and efficiency, reduce operating cost and minimize environmental impact.

gtc technology licensing
sulzer gtc logo

GTC’s innovations center around:

  • Technology licensing
  • Engineering services
  • Technical services
  • Process equipment technology (PET)
  • Energy saving services
  • Chemicals and catalysts
  • Research and development

Our patented suite of technologies fall broadly into the Petrochemical, Refinery, Gas Processing and Polyester Intermediates market segments. GTC’s petrochemical technologies available for license focus on value-added products from the steam cracker including BTX, styrene, naphthalene and various C5s. It is important for crackers using liquid feedstocks to upgrade all of the by-products in order to maintain competitiveness with the crackers using low-cost ethane feedstock. Our refining technologies upgrade fuel streams or convert fuel to higher value petrochemicals. These include CCR naphtha reforming, light naphtha isomerization and direct recovery of BTX from FCC gasoline.

GTC’s portfolio also includes a range of processes for meeting the clean fuels mandate for benzene reduction and low-sulfur products. In the polyester value chain, GTC’s licensees can benefit from breakthrough technology to reduce bromine and burning losses in the PTA oxidation system and avoid the high-pressure hydrogenation system to purify the TA. We offer a hybrid adsorption/crystallization scheme for PX recovery, and conversion of all aromatics in the raw material in xylenes, with the option for zero benzene co-production using our toluene alkylation process.

Our portfolio comrpises, among others:

Basic Engineering Packages

Sulzer GTC’s Basic Engineering Package (BEP) is designed so that all important technology information can efficiently and successfully be transferred to customers.  The information is constructed so that an experienced detail engineering contractor can easily execute the corresponding DE documentation.  Our BEP covers the entire technology know-how information for constructing and operating a plant. The BEP information is built on company know how, thoughtful analysis and research, proprietary simulation models, internal data bases, and monitoring of operational technologies:

Basic Engineering Packages

 

Sulzer GTC’s comprehensive BEP documentation includes:

  • Detailed process flow diagrams
  • P&ID’s, heat and material balance
  • Equipment process specifications
  • Process control description
  • Instrument process specifications
  • PSV’s and flare loading specifications
  • Material of construction diagrams
  • Detailed operating instructions
  • Analytical procedure manual

Our BEP documentation covers different operating scenarios in terms of feed, product or capacity variation, offering design solutions for each of the requested cases.  The BEP documentation includes the information for all auxiliary facilities essential for the proper operation of the main processing unit.  This may include solvent facilities, regeneration systems, waste disposal systems, feed preparation facilities, special loading/unloading systems etc. Sulzer GTC’s BEP documentation for grassroots units are updated with the latest process improvements based on research and data collected from our similar units in operation.  Sulzer GTC is well known for its expertise in revamping existing units by finding innovative solutions for modernizing old facilities.  Our expertise in reconfiguring the processing scheme, implementing unique technologies and knowledge in basic unit operation makes it possible to reach unprecedented performance.

BioFlux®
Figure 1. Integrated BioFlux® Unit

BioFlux Renewable Diesel

Versatile Hydrotreating Process

BioFlux® is a novel hydrotreating technology that addresses key issues challenging renewable diesel operators.

The BioFlux® Hydrotreating Unit has been designed to overcome the deficiencies of a trickle-bed design by completely dissolving hydrogen into the liquid.  High liquid mass flux is maximized in the reactor, and the proprietary reactor internals ensure complete mixing of feed and hydrogen for even distribution across the catalyst. In the first stage, triglycerides and lipid-based feeds are reacted with hydrogen to remove oxygen and saturate olefins, which generates a diesel-range hydrocarbon product.  Water, CO2, and other by-products are also generated. After by-product removal, a portion of the first reactor product is recycled and mixed with fresh feed. This recycled effluent provides three benefits: pre-heat to the fresh feed, which reduces the requirement for supplementary preheat; supply of additional hydrogen; and elimination of large gas recycle.  Combined, these changes lead to a 25% reduction in CAPEX and a 25 – 50% reduction in OPEX. 

Yield of diesel from BioFlux® is approximately 95-99wt%. On a volume basis, it is nearly an even ratio, i.e., one barrel of renewable diesel can be produced from each barrel of feed, which meets or exceeds relevant standards, such as ASTM D975 (US), EN590 and EN15940 (Euro). Renewable naphtha, sustainable aviation fuel, or bio-propane can also be collected as saleable product from a BioFlux® unit.


Figure 2. BioFlux Reaction Zone Configuration. A liquid recycle is used to deliver hydrogen and pre-heat the hydrocarbon feed.

Process Advantages

  • Low-CAPEX, low-OPEX
  • Higher throughput and increased yield
  • Lowered hydrogen consumption
  • Superior operational stability
  • Extended catalyst life
  • Suitable for grassroots or revamp units

BioFlux is offered by Sulzer GTC in cooperation with Duke Technologies.

CrystPX

CrystPX

Paraxylene Recovery Crystallization/Hybrid

 

CrystPX is Sulzer GTC’s crystallization technology for production of paraxylene, offered through alliance with Lyondell Bassell. This process separates paraxylene by slurry phase crystallization and separation of the paraxylene crystals from the remaining liquid. CrystPX technology is applicable with high or low concentration paraxylene feedstocks, and is a lower-cost alternative to adsorption methods for paraxylene production. Sulzer GTC takes advantage of recent advances in crystallization techniques and improvements in equipment to create this attractive method for paraxylene recovery and purification.

Process Description

In the CrystPX Technology process, suspension crystallization of paraxylene (PX) in the xylene isomer mixture is used to produce paraxylene crystals. The technology utilizes an optimized arrangement of equipment to obtain the required recovery and product purity. Washing the paraxylene crystal with the final product in a high efficiency pusher-centrifuge system produces the paraxylene product.

When paraxylene content in the feed is enriched above equilibrium, such as streams originating from selective toluene conversion processes, the proprietary crystallization process technology is even more economical to produce high-purity paraxylene product at high recoveries. The process technology takes advantage of recent advances in crystallization techniques and improvements in equipment to create this cost-effective method for paraxylene recovery and purification.

The design uses only crystallizers and centrifuges in the primary operation. This simplicity of equipment promotes low maintenance costs, easy incremental expansions, and controlled flexibility. High-purity paraxylene is produced in the front section of the process at warm temperatures, taking advantage of the high concentration of paraxylene already in the feed. At the back end of the process, high paraxylene recovery is obtained by operating the crystallizers at colder temperatures. This scheme minimizes the need for recycling excessive amounts of filtrate, thus reducing overall energy requirements.

Process Advantages

  • High paraxylene purity and recovery (99.8+ wt.% purity at up to 95% recovery)
  • Crystallization equipment is simple and operationally trouble free
  • Compact design requires small plot size and lowest capital investment
  • Operation is flexible to meet market requirements for paraxylene purity
  • System is easily amendable to future requirement for incremental capacity increases
  • Feed concentration of paraxylene is used efficiently
  • Technology is flexible to process a range of feed concentrations (75-95 wt. % paraxylene) in a 1-stage refrigeration system
  • Design variations are used to recover paraxylene efficiently from feedstocks (-22% PX) in a multi-stage system, competitive with adsorption-based systems
FCC Gasoline Desulfurization Technology

FCC Gasoline
Desulfurization Technology

Aromatics Recovered from FCC Gasoline

 

GT-BTX PluS is a variation of GT-BTX that uses extractive distillation technology for simultaneous recovery of BTX and thiophenic sulfur species from refinery or petrochemical aromatic-containing streams. The technology helps produce low sulfur gasoline meeting the 10 ppm limit of sulfur without change in octane value.  An alternative use of GT-BTX PluS is to generate a large volume of aromatics to produce paraxylene without the requirement of a typical naphtha reformer unit.  The aromatics recovery is especially attractive for use with feedstocks produced from high severity FCC operations.

The process is optimally installed on the FCC mid-cut naphtha stream. GT-BTX PluS removes all thiophenes and some of the mercaptan species from the FCC gasoline feed.  The olefin-rich raffinate can be sent directly to the gasoline pool for blending, or to a caustic treating unit to remove the mercaptan-type sulfur compounds before being sent to the gasoline. The desulfurized aromatics extract stream can be directly fed into petrochemical production units instead of recycling to the naphtha reformer. GT-BTX PluS provides an effective solution for meeting today’s clean gasoline requirements and gives refiners the ability to convert lower-value gasoline components into higher-value petrochemicals.

Process Description

The optimum feed is the mid fraction of FCC gasoline from 70°C to 150°C.  This material is fed to the GT-BTX PluS unit, which extracts the sulfur and aromatics from the hydrocarbon stream.  The sulfur-containing aromatic components are processed in a conventional hydrotreater to convert the sulfur into hydrogen sulfide (H2S).  Because the portion of gasoline being hydrotreated is reduced in volume and free of olefins, hydrogen consumption and operating costs are greatly reduced.  In contrast, conventional desulfurization schemes must process the majority of the gasoline through hydrotreating units to remove sulfur, which inevitably results in olefin saturation, octane downgrade and yield loss.

FCC gasoline is fed to the extractive distillation column (EDC).  In a vapor-liquid operation, the solvent extracts the sulfur compounds into the bottoms of the column along with the aromatic components while rejecting the olefins and non-aromatics into the overhead as raffinate.  Nearly all of the non-aromatics, including olefins, are effectively separated into the raffinate stream.  The raffinate stream can be optionally caustic washed before routing to the gasoline pool or to an aromatization unit to further increase benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) production.

Rich solvent, containing aromatics and sulfur compounds, is routed to the solvent recovery column (SRC), where the hydrocarbons and sulfur species are separated, and lean solvent is recovered in columns bottoms.  The SRC overhead is hydrotreated by conventional means and either used as desulfurized gasoline or directed to an aromatics plant.  Lean solvent from the SRC bottoms is recycled back to the EDC.

Front End Engineering Design Packages

Front End Engineering Design (FEED) Packages

 

Sulzer GTC has the capability to extend the design work and basic engineering package (BEP) documentation to the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) level.  The FEED information is based on a deep understanding of each technology and incorporates the experience and knowledge of our diverse engineering team.  The combined BE-FEED design enables us to provide clients with shorter project schedules and improved project quality due to a single engineering source involved in the design activity.

The information available in FEED documentation extends the BE information to detailed documents for instrumentation, civil, electrical, and piping among others, which are required for FEED preparation.  The FEED documentation is presented in a ready-to-use format for selecting a detailed engineering (DE) Contractor.  Investment cost estimation associated with the corresponding FEED documentation is also offered as a FEED deliverable.

GT-Aromatization

GT-Aromatization

Aromatization/Olefin Cracking

Sulzer GTC Technology, in alliance with our technology partner, offers commercially proven aromatization technology for gasoline octane improvement or aromatics production. The technology uses a proprietary catalyst in fixed bed reactors with periodic catalyst regeneration. Sulzer GTC provides various options in capital investment and operation modes to maximize our client’s profits.

Process Advantages

Aromatization technology for octane improvement

  • Upgrade low octane gasoline to premium gasoline
  • Overall product utilization (gasoline +LPG) is greater than 93%
  • The upgraded RON 90 gasoline has low sulfur and olefins, and is excellent blending material combined with FCC gasoline

Aromatization technology for aromatics production

  • Convert C4 – C8 olefins into aromatics
  • No hydrogen needed
  • Complete integration with Steam Cracker possible with dry gas for hydrogen recovery; LPG and paraffins are recycled to steam cracking
  • Simple distillation is typically used to meet the aromatics specifications for paraxylene manufacture
  • Feedstocks can be from FCC, Steam Cracking, and Coking
GT-BenZap

GT-BenZap

 

Benzene Saturation

 

Sulzer GTC’s process know-how can meet refiner’s needs by providing a variety of cost effective solutions, ranging from aromatics extraction to catalytic hydrogenation for benzene management in gasoline-bound streams.  GT-BenZap℠ is suggested for refineries limited by economies of scale required for benzene extraction or for units located in remote areas away from benzene consumers.  When implementing GT-BenZap Sulzer GTC’s experts simulate the existing process and provide custom integration with the refiner’s existing units for effective benzene management.

Process Description

Sulzer GTC’s GT-BenZap process features a reliable traditional design paired with a proven active hydrogenation  catalyst.  The process consists of hydrotreating a narrow-cut C6 fraction, which is separated from the full-range reformate to saturate the benzene component into cyclohexane.  The reformate is first fed to a reformate splitter, where the C6 heart cut is separated as a side-draw fraction while the C7+ cut and the C5– light fraction are removed as bottom and top products of the column.

The C6 olefins present in the C6 cut are also hydrogenated to paraffins while the C5– olefins removed at the top of the splitter are not, thus preserving the octane number.  The hydrogenated C6 fraction from the reactor outlet is sent to a stabilizer column where the remaining hydrogen and lights are removed overhead.  The C5– cut, produced from the splitter overhead, is recombined with the hydrogenated C6 cut within the GT-BenZap process in a unique manner that reduces energy consumption and capital equipment cost.  The light reformate is mixed with the C7+ cut from the splitter column and together form the full-range reformate, which is low in benzene.  Sulzer GTC also offers a modular construction option and the possibility to reuse existing equipment.

Process Advantages

  • Simple process to hydrogenate benzene and remove it from gasoline
  • Reliable technology that uses an isolated hydrogenation reactor
  • Reduces benzene in reformate streams by over 99.9%
  • Minimal impact to hydrogen balance and octane loss
GT-BTX®
aroma

GT-BTX®: Aromatics Recovery

Using Extractive Distillation GT-BTX® removes benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) from refinery, petrochemical or coke oven aromatics streams such as catalytic reformate, pyrolysis gasoline or coke oven light oil (COLO).

GT-BTX® is an aromatics recovery technology that uses extractive distillation to remove benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) from refinery, petrochemical or coke oven aromatics streams such as catalytic reformate, pyrolysis gasoline or coke oven light oil (COLO). With lower capital and operating costs, simplicity of operation, a wider range of feedstock and solvent performance, extractive distillation is superior to conventional liquid-liquid extraction processes. Flexibility of design allows use for grassroots aromatics recovery units, debottlenecking, or expansion of conventional extraction systems.

Sulzer GTC’s GT-BTX process is a result of extensive testing of extractive distillation solvents and blends. Our experience indicates that certain combinations of solvent components enhance extraction performance. Co-solvents also provide an additional parameter for the optimization of unit performance (e.g., stability, mass transfer efficiency). GT-BTX utilizes the Techtiv-100® extractive distillation solvent which provides optimum extractive distillation performance. GT-BTX has no special feed preparation requirements and is capable of handling a wide-range (BTX) feedstock while producing very high aromatics purities (99.99 wt.% plus) at high recoveries (99.9 % plus).

Process Overview

The flow scheme of the GT-BTX process consists of two columns: an extractive distillation column (EDC) and a solvent recovery column (SRC).

Since the basic separation in the GT-BTX process is achieved by distillation, the operation of the unit is very simple and intuitive. Control of the main process parameters are achieved in a manner similar to that of a regular distillation column.

Hydrocarbon feed is preheated with hot circulating solvent and fed at a mid-point into the EDC. Lean solvent is fed at an upper point and selectively extracts the aromatics into the tower bottoms in a vapor/liquid distillation operation. The non-aromatics hydrocarbons exit from the top of the column. A portion of the overhead stream is returned to the top of the column as reflux, which washes back any entrained solvent.

Rich solvent from the bottom of the EDC is routed to the SRC, where the aromatics are stripped overhead. The SRC is operated under a vacuum to reduce the boiling point at the bottom of the column.

Lean solvent from the bottom of the SRC is passed through a heat exchanger before returning to the EDC. A small portion of the lean circulating solvent is processed in a solvent regeneration step to remove heavy decomposition products.

The SRC overhead mixed aromatics product is routed to the purification section, where it is fractionated to produce chemical-grade benzene, toluene and xylenes.

 

Advantages

The benefits of extractive distillation, particularly those highlighted by GT-BTX technology, may be summarized as follows:

  • Simple two-column ED system which requires 30-40 percent lower capital cost than conventional liquid-liquid extraction systems
  • Carbon steel construction throughout
  • Smaller plot requirement than other systems
  • Lower solvent inventory that further reduces investment requirement
  • Solvent blend exhibits highest selectivity among all others in commercial use. Solvent properties allow wide boiling range materials (C5- C9) to be fed into unit, with varying aromatics content
  • A short time is required to stabilize unit (few hours vs. few days with liquid-liquid extraction systems)
  • Lowest speci­fic energy consumption (20-30 percent less than others)
  • Very low solvent consumption and circulation rates
  • Higher product purity and aromatic recovery
  • Insignificant fouling compared to liquid-liquid contactors
  • The benzene product from GT-BTX is nitrogen free. Unlike some competing solvents, GTC’s solvent is free of basic nitrogen containing components, which permanently poison the catalyst in many benzene consuming units

 

GT-BTX PluS®
plus

GT-BTX PluS®

FCC Gasoline Desulfurization Technology

Meeting the World’s Clean Gasoline Needs

GT-BTX PluS is a variation of GT-BTX that uses extractive distillation technology for simultaneous recovery of BTX and thiophenic sulfur species from refinery or petrochemical aromatic-containing streams. The technology helps produce low sulfur gasoline meeting the 10 ppm limit of sulfur without change in octane value.  An alternative use of GT-BTX PluS is to generate a large volume of aromatics to produce paraxylene without the requirement of a typical naphtha reformer unit.  The aromatics recovery is especially attractive for use with feedstocks produced from high severity FCC operations.

The process is optimally installed on the FCC mid-cut naphtha stream. GT-BTX PluS removes all thiophenes and some of the mercaptan species from the FCC gasoline feed.  The olefin-rich raffinate can be sent directly to the gasoline pool for blending, or to a caustic treating unit to remove the mercaptan-type sulfur compounds before being sent to the gasoline. The desulfurized aromatics extract stream can be directly fed into petrochemical production units instead of recycling to the naphtha reformer. GT-BTX PluS provides an effective solution for meeting today’s clean gasoline requirements and gives refiners the ability to convert lower-value gasoline components into higher-value petrochemicals.

Process Description

The optimum feed is the mid fraction of FCC gasoline from 70°C to 150°C.  This material is fed to the GT-BTX PluS unit, which extracts the sulfur and aromatics from the hydrocarbon stream.  The sulfur-containing aromatic components are processed in a conventional hydrotreater to convert the sulfur into hydrogen sulfide (H2S).  Because the portion of gasoline being hydrotreated is reduced in volume and free of olefins, hydrogen consumption and operating costs are greatly reduced.  In contrast, conventional desulfurization schemes must process the majority of the gasoline through hydrotreating units to remove sulfur, which inevitably results in olefin saturation, octane downgrade and yield loss.

FCC gasoline is fed to the extractive distillation column (EDC).  In a vapor-liquid operation, the solvent extracts the sulfur compounds into the bottoms of the column along with the aromatic components while rejecting the olefins and non-aromatics into the overhead as raffinate.  Nearly all of the non-aromatics, including olefins, are effectively separated into the raffinate stream.  The raffinate stream can be optionally caustic washed before routing to the gasoline pool or to an aromatization unit to further increase benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) production.

Rich solvent, containing aromatics and sulfur compounds, is routed to the solvent recovery column (SRC), where the hydrocarbons and sulfur species are separated, and lean solvent is recovered in columns bottoms.  The SRC overhead is hydrotreated by conventional means and either used as desulfurized gasoline or directed to an aromatics plant.  Lean solvent from the SRC bottoms is recycled back to the EDC.

 

Process Advantages

  • Reduced OPEX and CAPEX in desulfurization from treating full-range naphtha.
  • Less hydrogen consumed than if the full-range material were hydrotreated.
  • HDS function required only for sulfur removal.
  • Octane value fully retained due to the diversion of feed olefins from hydrotreater.
  • Gasoline yield completely maintained.
  • High-quality aromatics produced from FCC gasoline.
  • Sulfur content of the FCC gasoline fraction being sent to the gasoline pool reduced to less than 20 ppm.
  • Segregated olefin-rich stream may be converted into propylene or additional aromatics.
  • Greater utilization of the naphtha reformer, compared to units that recycle the cracked gasoline.
  • Opportunity to feed more fresh naphtha and generate more hydrogen.
GT-C5

GT-C5

C5 Processing for Hydrocarbon Resin Feedstocks

 

GT-C5℠ is an optimized process to separate, recover and upgrade the value of certain C5 components of pyrolysis gasoline. Valuable C5 and C10 components are produced that are suitable for producing hydrocarbon resins.

The GT-C5 process consists of five operating steps:

  • Fractionation to remove light boiling components;
  • Two stage dimerization reaction for selective production of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and CPD codimers;
  • Fractionation section to remove crude isoprene and similar boiling components;
  • Third stage selective dimerization reaction to enhance the DCPD yield;
  • Fractionation section to produce piperylenes (PIPS) and DCPD suitable for hydrocarbon resin production.

Process Advantages

DCPD

  • Proprietary staged dimerization process to gain more flexibility
  • Capable of producing a DCPD stream loaded with certain valuable codimers for use in hydrocarbon resin production
  • Capability to produce up to 85% pure DCPD

PIPs

  • Optimum energy scheme to produce piperylene stream rich in components that are ideally suited for C5 resin production

Isoprene

  • Improved isoprene concentration in the crude isoprene stream
  • Flexibility to operate the unit to maximize the isoprene recovery
GT-CAR

GT-CAR

Carboxylic Acid Recovery

 

GT-CAR is Sulzer GTC’s carboxylic acid recovery technology that combines liquid-liquid extraction technology with distillation to recover and concentrate carboxylic acids from wastewater. The use of a high boiling solvent enables the process to attain the lowest energy use of any commercially available process, with minimal capital costs. The recovered acids may be sold as high purity products or recycled back to the process. The biological oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater stream is greatly reduced.

GT-CAR is economical for any aqueous stream generated in the production of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), purified terephthalic acid (PTA), pulp/paper, furfural, and other processes. Acids concentrations as low as 0.5-3.0% can be recovered economically.  High purity formic acid or acetic acid are typical products.

Process Description

In Sulzer GTC’s carboxylic acid recovery process, an acid-containing aqueous stream is fed to an extraction column, which operates using a proprietary, high boiling solvent which is selective to carboxylic acids.  The acid-rich solvent stream is carried overhead from the extraction column for regeneration.  In the two-stage regeneration step, surplus water is removed (dehydration) and the acids are recovered by acid stripping.  The solvent is routed back to the extraction column for reuse.  Final processing of the concentrated acids is determined on a plant-by-plant basis.  The treated waste-water stream, containing acid levels on the order of < 2,000 ppm, exits the system to the plant’s wastewater treatment area.

Process Advantages

  • Up to 98% of the acids can be recovered
  • Acids concentrations as low as 0.5% can be economically recovered
  • Low capital investment results in typical ROI up to 40 %
  • Modular systems approach means minimal disruption of plant operation and shorter project schedule
  • Use of high-boiling solvent gives high acid recovery and substantial energy savings
  • Solvent is easily separated from water, giving a solvent-free (<20 ppm) wastewater exit stream
  • The carboxylic acid product purity allows for recycle or resale
  • High acid recovery provides environmental benefits, unloading biological treatment systems
GT-DMT

GT-DMT

Dimethyl Terephthalate

 

Sulzer GTC’s GT-DMT technology is a series of process enhancements for dimethyl terephthalate production.  The technology addresses oxidation, distillation, esterification, crystallization, and waste-water treatment resulting in lower energy consumption, increased capacity, and yield improvements.  Multiple projects aimed at the improvement of DMT production from paraxylene and methanol feedstocks have resulted in efficient processing schemes for this production route.

Our GT-DMT technology is flexible and may be implemented in increments.  Full utilization can produce a significant capacity increase in revamp situations with maximum use of existing equipment.  For grassroots projects, capital investment is significantly reduced while obtaining improved yields and maximum capacity.

Process Description

The common method for the production of DMT from paraxylene (PX) and methanol consists of four major steps: oxidation, esterification, distillation, and crystallization.  A mixture of PX and PT-ester is oxidized with air in the presence of a heavy metal catalyst.  All useful organics are recovered from the offgas and recycled to the system.  The acid mixture resulting from the oxidation is esterified with methanol (MeOH) to produce a mixture of esters.  The crude ester mixture is distilled to remove all the heavy boilers and residue produced; the lighter esters are recycled to the oxidation section.  The raw DMT is then sent to the crystallization section to remove DMT isomers, residual acids and aromatic aldehydes.  This purification produces DMT that meets world-market specifications and is preferred in some polyester applications.  By-products are recovered for sale or burned for fuel value, and usable intermediate materials are recycled.

The Sulzer GTC process improvements enhance the traditional process in each of the four sections through changes in process configurations and operating conditions, alteration of separation schemes, revision of recovery arrangements, increase in the value of by-products and reduction in the total recycles in the plant.  The upgrade options may be implemented individually, combined or through a series of revamps over a period of time.

Process Advantages

  • Improved process yields
  • Higher specific throughput
  • Lower energy consumption/ton DMT produced
  • Flexible application for grassroots projects or revamps
  • Accumulated technical expertise available through engineering packages and
  • follow-up services
GT-DWC®
dividing wall

GT-DWC® - Dividing Wall Column Design Saves Costs and Energy

Dividing Wall Column Design Saves Costs and Energy

Sulzer GTC Technology’s process equipment technology offerings can include the dividing wall column (DWC), which separates a multi-component feed into three or more purified streams within a single tower, thereby eliminating the need for a second column. This design saves capital and energy costs normally invested in a separation unit.

The DWC design uses a vertical wall to divide the middle of the column into two sections. The feed is sent to one side of the column called the pre-fractionation section. There the light components travel up the column where they are purified while the heavy components travel down the column. The liquid flow from the column’s top and the vapor flow from the bottom are routed to their respective sides of the dividing wall.

From the opposite side of the wall, the side product is removed from the area where the middle boiling components are most concentrated. This arrangement is capable of producing a much purer middle product than a conventional side draw column of the same duty, and at a higher flow rate. And for the same product specifications, GTC-DWC requires substantially lower capital and operating cost than a conventional two-column system.

The technology is especially suited for removing a heartcut from a multi-component mixture, where the alternative is a series of fractionating Towers

Benefits of GT-DWC

Process Design and Control Scheme

  • Conceptual design to basic engineering package of the dividing wall column, coupled with dynamic simulation modeling, ensures reliable process design and a solution that is optimized for your specific application.
  • DWC Internals
  • Sulzer GTC is a leading supplier for column internals of all types.
  • Our integration of process and application knowledge results in innovative designs of DWC internals.
  • Sulzer GTC internals ensure correct pressure balance and arrangement along with internal distribution. This is the key to reliable, trouble-free operation of dividing wall columns.

Engineering Services

  • Sulzer GTC provides detailed engineering, procurement and construction management for all DWC applications.
GT-IsomPX

GT-IsomPX

Xylene Isomerization Process

Xylene Isomerization Technology – GT-IsomPX℠

GT-IsomPX is Sulzer GTC’s xylene isomerization technology available in two versions: ethylbenzene isomerization type and EB dealkylation type. Both versions gain high EB conversion rates while producing equilibrium mixed xylenes. Catalysts that exhibit superior physical activity and stability are the key to this technology. The technology and catalysts are used commercially in several applications.

How Xylene Isomerization Works

For an EB dealkylation type of isomerization, the technology encompasses two main processing areas: reactor section and product distillation section. In this process, PX-depleted feed stream is first mixed with hydrogen. The mixed stream is then heated against reactor effluent and through a process furnace. The heated mixture is fed into isomerization reaction unit, where MX, OX, and PX are isomerized to equilibrium and EB is de-alkylated to Benzene.

The reactor effluent is cooled and flows to the separator, where the hydrogen-rich vapor phase is separated from the liquid stream. A small portion of the vapor phase is purged to control the purity of the recycle hydrogen. The recycle hydrogen is then compressed, mixed with makeup hydrogen, and returned to the reactor.

The liquid stream from the separator is pumped to the deheptanizer to remove light hydrocarbons. The liquid stream from the deheptanizer overhead contains benzene and toluene and is sent to the distillation section to produce high-purity benzene and toluene products. The liquid stream from the deheptanizer bottoms contains mixed xylenes and a small amount of C9+ aromatics. This liquid stream is returned to the PX recovery section.

GT-Isoprene

GT-Isoprene℠ is a single stage isoprene extraction technology using proprietary solvent.  The technology uses less energy and equipment compared to competitive traditional extraction processes and uses corrosion-free environmentally friendly solvent unlike acetonitrile (ACN) and dimethyl formamide (DMF).

The GT-Isoprene process consists of a crude isoprene pretreatment section to remove sulfur, C5 acetylene hydrogenation to selectively saturate the C5 acetylenes, single stage extractive distillation and a stripping section to produce an isoprene concentrate stream (up to 85%) and a super fractionation section to achieve SIS (styrene-isoprene-styrene tri-block polymer) grade isoprene.

Process Advantages

  • Single stage extractive distillation
  • Selective C5 acetylene saturation and sulfur removal process produces gasoline blend quality raffinate
  • Less number of stages and equipment in the purification section compared to traditional superfractionation
  • Finishing section requires no hot or cold utility
  • 80% less energy compared to conventional superfractionation
  • Solvent has very low skin permeability, high stability and poses no issues in the presence of water unlike DMF and ACN
  • Improved extraction efficiency compared to traditional solvents

GT-Isoprene uses GTC’s proprietary solvent that has none of the water contamination or material corrosion issues that traditional solvents like DMF and ACN have. Fewer corrosion issues lead to reduced chemical consumption, lower energy consumption compared to DMF/ACN based technologies and minimum solvent loss compared to DMF/ACN based technologies.  A polymer removal system increases the life and efficiency of the solvent.

 

GT-LPG MAX®
lpg

GT-LPG MAX®

Maximizing LPG Recovery from Fuel Gas Using a Dividing Wall Column

Refinery off gas is a mixture of hydrogen and hydrocarbons from various units within the refinery, pooled together to be used as a fuel for heating purposes. The fuel gas contains valuable components such as propane, which can provide additional revenue to the refinery. The economics of LPG recovery fluctuates with LPG pricing and energy cost. GT-LPG Max provides a cost-effective solution for recovering LPG product using a novel process concept of absorption plus distillation within the same fractionating vessel. The technology is well suited for low-pressure refinery off gas as well as associated natural gas streams. The process is based on avoiding thermodynamic inefficiencies in conventional absorption and distillation columns by incorporating the unit operations in a single top dividing wall column (DWC). The feed side of the top DWC recovers the C3+ components from the fuel gas through absorption. The other side of the DWC uses distillation to split between C3 and C4 components to produce LPG product.

 

GT-LPG Max offers the following benefits:

  • 99% propane recovery without the use of external refrigeration
  • Lower operating pressure (200 – 250 psig)
  • Lower CAPEX and OPEX

Process Advantages

  • PX in xylenes reaches thermodynamic equilibrium after reaction
  • EB dealkylation to benzene or isomerization to xylenes. With the EB-dealkylation catalyst, the by-product benzene is produced at high purity by simple distillation
  • Low H2/HC, high WHSV, low xylenes loss
  • Long cycle length
  • Efficient heat integration scheme reduces energy consumption
  • Turnkey package for high purity benzene, toluene, and paraxylene production available
GT-STDP

GT-STDP

Disproportionation

GT-STDP produces paraxylene-rich mixed xylene along with high purity benzene streams from toluene. This toluene disproportionation technology boasts high toluene conversion rates and integrated production routes. GT-STDP features a commercially proven proprietary catalyst with high activity and selectivity to paraxylene.

Process Description

The technology encompasses three main processing areas: reactor section, product distillation and paraxylene (PX) recovery. Fresh toluene and recycled toluene from the product distillation area are mixed with hydrogen. The hydrogen-to-toluene ratio is about 1 to 1.5. The mixed stream is heated against reactor effluent and through a process furnace. The heated vapor stream flows to the reactor, which produces the benzene and xylenes. The toluene disproportionation reactions are mildly exothermic.

The reactor effluent is cooled and flows to the separator, where the hydrogen-rich vapor phase is separated from the liquid stream. A small portion of the vapor phase is purged to control recycle hydrogen purity. The recycled hydrogen is then compressed, mixed with makeup hydrogen and returned to the reactor.

The liquid stream from the separator is pumped to the stripper to remove light hydrocarbons. The liquid stream from the stripper bottoms contains benzene, toluene, mixed xylenes and a small quantity of C9+ aromatics. This liquid stream is sent to the product distillation section to obtain benzene product, toluene for recycle to the reactor, mixed xylenes to the PX recovery section, and C9+ aromatics. The PX in the mixed xylenes stream is over 90% purity, which permits low-cost crystallization technology to be used for the PX purification.

Process Advantages

  • Simple, low cost fixed-bed reactor design
  • Drop-in catalyst replacement for existing hydroprocessing reactors
  • Paraxylene enriched to over 90 percent in the xylene stream
  • On-specification benzene with traditional distillation
  • Physically stable catalyst
  • Low hydrogen consumption
  • Moderate operating parameters; catalyst can be used as replacement to traditional toluene disproportionation units, or in grass roots designs
  • Efficient heat integration scheme, reduced energy consumption
  • Turnkey package for high purity benzene and paraxylene production available from licensor
GT-Styrene®
styrene

GT-Styrene®

Styrene recovery from raw pyrolysis gasoline (pygas) derived from the steam cracking of naphtha, gas oils, and natural gas liquids (NGL)

GT-Styrene is Sulzer GTC’s extractive distillation process that directly recovers styrene from the raw pyrolysis gasoline derived from the steam cracking of naphtha, gas oils, and natural gas liquids (NGL).  The styrene, produced at high purities and suitable for polymerization,  is a less costly alternative to conventional styrene production routes.  If desired, the mixed xylenes can also be extracted from the pygas, raising their value as a chemical feedstock.  Our GT-Styrene process is economically attractive to steam cracker operators which produce greater than 500 KMTA ethylene from liquids feedstock.

Process Description

Raw pyrolysis gasoline is prefractionated into a heartcut C8 stream.  The resulting styrene concentrate is fed to an ED column and mixed with a selective solvent, which extracts the styrene to the tower bottoms.  The rich solvent mixture is routed to a solvent recovery column (SRC), which recycles the lean solvent back to the ED column and recovers the styrene overhead.  A final purification step produces a 99.9% styrene product containing less than 50-ppm phenyl acetylene.  The ED column overhead can be further processed to recover a high-quality mixed-xylene stream.  A typical world-scale cracker can produce approximately 25,000 tpy styrene and 75,000 tpy mixed xylenes from pyrolysis gasoline.

Process Advantages

  • Produces polymer-grade styrene at 99.9% purity
  • Allows the recovery of isomer-quality mixed xylenes for paraxylene production
  • Debottlenecks pygas hydrotreater and extends cycle length
  • Reduces hydrogen consumed in hydrotreating
  • Optimized solvent system and design provide economical operating costs
GT-TolAlk℠

GT-TolAlk

Low-cost material for PX manufacture production

Toluene methylation is an effective and economical solution to maximize PX yields by adding the methyl group from low-cost methanol to the aromatic ring. Sulzer GTC’s GT-TolAlk is an effective way to derive PX while eliminating benzene production.

Process Overview

The feedstock, consisting of methanol and toluene, is processed in the toluene methylation reaction section where the toluene is alkylated into xylenes. The reactor effluent is processed in the fractionation section to produce the mixed xylene product. Unconverted toluene is separated and recycled back to the reaction section. C9+ aromatics fraction is also produced and separated, and is available as feedstock to the transalkylation unit, as the C9+ cut is rich in tri-methyl benzene.


Process Advantages

  • Simple fixed-bed, low-pressure process
  • No hydrogen needed
  • High production capacity
  • Effective addition of methyl group to aromatic ring
  • Very low EB in C8 aromatics; higher PX content compared to reformate xylenes
  • Potential for zero benzene by-product

Concept of Toluene Methylation

Traditional toluene-based PX technologies involve re-arrangement of the alkyl groups though various methods. Benzene is the typical by-product due to insufficient methyl groups compared to phenyl groups. By adding methyl groups to the aromatic ring, GT-TolAlk replenishes the methyl group shortage to yield more xylene over benzene.

GT-TransAlk℠

GT-TransAlk℠

Low-cost material for PX manufacture production

GT-TransAlk process technology produces benzene and xylenes through transalkylation of the methyl groups from toluene and/or heavy aromatics streams. The technology features a proprietary zeolite catalyst and can accommodate varying ratios of feedstock, while maintaining high activity and selectivity. GT-TransAlk is especially well-suited for processing heavy aromatics (C9-C10+) with a long run length, in order to maximize the production of xylenes from the aromatic feedstock. High purity benzene is produced by simple distillation.

Process Description

The technology encompasses three main processing areas: splitter, reactor, and stabilizer sections. The heavy-aromatics stream (C9+ feed) is fed to the splitter. The overhead C9/C10 aromatic product is the feed to the transalkylation reactor section. The splitter bottoms are exchanged with other streams for heat recovery before leaving the system. The aromatic product is mixed with toluene and hydrogen, vaporized, and fed to the reactor. The reactor gaseous product is primarily unreacted hydrogen, which is recycled to the reactor. The liquid product stream is subsequently stabilized to remove light components. The resulting aromatics are routed to product fractionation to produce the final benzene and xylene products. The reactor is charged with zeolite catalyst, which exhibits both long life and good flexibility to feed stream variations including substantial C10 aromatics. Depending on feed compositions and light components present, the xylene yield can vary from 25% to 32% and C9 conversion from 53% to 67%.

Process Advantages

  • Simple, low cost fixed-bed reactor design; drop in replacement for other catalysts
  • Very high selectivity; benzene purity is 99.9% without extraction
  • Physically stable catalyst
  • Flexible to handle up to 90+% C9+ components in feed with high conversion
  • Catalyst is resistant to impurities common to this service
  • Moderate operating parameters; catalyst can be used as replacement for other transalkylation units or in grass roots designs
  • Decreased hydrogen consumption due to low cracking rates
  • Significant decrease in energy consumption due to efficient heat integration scheme

High Performance Fractionation Tray Towers

High Performance Fractionation Tray Towers

 

At Sulzer GTC we work with each client to customize our extensive line of mass transfer technology trays for different process conditions from high pressure to vacuum conditions, fouling, polymerization and chemical reaction.  We offer a wide variety of active devices including floating or fixed, rectangular or round, sieve, bubble caps and shed decks among others.  All of our trays are designed to achieve optimum capacity and efficiency and our technology applies fundamental principles such as:

  • Liquid gradient elimination
  • Static head control
  • Plug flow optimization
  • Vapor dispersion injectors/contactors
  • Optimum vapor-liquid-distribution
  • Liquid flux management
  • Anti-fouling capability

Our GT-OPTIM™ state-of-the-art high performance trays have been commercially proven in refinery, petrochemical, and chemical applications to achieve efficiency and capacity improvements over conventional trays.  All of our trays can be constructed of standard or exotic materials with various downcomer designs such as straight, sloped, stepped, swept and truncated. In addition, our trays deliver performance improvement through higher turndown, less weepage and lower entrainment.

High Performance Structured Packing

High Performance Structured Packing

 

Sulzer GTC’s structured packing is designed to help clients achieve higher capacity, higher efficiency and lower pressure drop.  When selecting structured packing, we advise our clients to consider several parameters that influence the performance of the equipment including crimp height, crimp inclination angle, element height, surface treatment, fouling tendency, system properties and service.  Our corrugated sheet structured packing, the industry standard clients have come to expect, can be modified through the packing geometry, surface treatment and manipulation of variables in order to increase efficiency and capacity.  Below is a full listing of our structured packing offerings.

Industry Standard Corrugated Sheet Packing

Sulzer GTC’s high efficiency structured packing, GT-PAK is designed to achieve maximum efficiency in column revamps or grassroots units and is available in perforated, textured or corrugated sheet metal and can be customized for all major surface area requirements. To simplify installation, the corrugated sheets that make up our structured packing modules are assembled with screws, and periphery column wall wiper banding is attached prior to shipment. These enhancements ensure a stronger, more robust structured packing module that is easier to handle in the field during installation.

High Capacity Structured Packing

GT-OPTIM PAK, Sulzer GTC’s product line of high-performance structured packing, is designed to deliver greater column throughput at the same efficiency as traditional structured packing.  GT-OPTIM PAK can be used in a wide range of application settings and is designed to optimize film flow vapor-liquid mixing, reduce pressure drop, increase capacity and provide excellent separation efficiency.

High Performance Packing

GT-OPTIM-e PAK is Sulzer GTC’s high performance large crimp structured packing that combines the advantages of increased charge rates, lower pressure drops and reduced energy requirements to create a higher capacity and efficiency packing compared to conventional trays.  Our high-performance large crimp structured packing features enhanced surface treatment and has been commercially proven to increase vacuum gas oil (VGO) lift from the vacuum residue (VR).

Aqueous Service Structured Packing

Sulzer GTC has developed GT-AQUA PAK, a product line of aqueous service structured packing that optimizes the spreading turbulence required for high efficiency within an aqueous system. GT-AQUA PAK is best suited for high surface tension systems.  We work closely with clients to evaluate design separation efficiencies prior to making a selection of packing for acetic acid-water, acrylonitrile-water, acetone-water, alcohols-water, ethylene glycol and water-DMF systems.

Anti-Fouling Packing

Sulzer GTC has developed GT-GRID and GT-MixGRID, a product line of grid packing ranging from industry standard bar-grating-latice type grids to industry standard corrugated sheet style grids.  Our anti-fouling packing is designed to remove heavy metals, con-carbons, and residue entrainment in crude atmospheric and vacuum distillation column wash sections. Our GT-GRID and GT-MixGRID are suited for heat transfer sections such as a slurry pumparound section of an FCC main fractionator. The anti-fouling packing is designed to address high-temperature severe conditions that have coking or polymerization sediment. When clients require high throughput and fouling resistance, Sulzer GTC’s grids combined with the appropriate distributor are the best solution for delivering industry leading performance.

Isomalk

Isomalk

High conversions to the key iso-components while maintaining prolonged catalyst service lifetimes, simple operation and resistance to process impurities

The Isomalk℠ family of technologies are based on the use of mixed metal oxide (nonchlorinated) catalysts that operate at low temperatures, thus allowing refiners to enjoy high conversions to the key iso-components while maintaining prolonged catalyst service lifetimes, simple operation and resistance to process impurities. These processes include Isomalk-2 for C5-C6 isomerization, Isomalk-3 for C4 isomerization and Isomalk-4 for C7 paraffins isomerization.  The Isomalk technologies are licensed in partnership by Sulzer GTC and NPP Neftehim.

Isomalk-2

Isomalk-2 is a low-temperature isomerization technology that has been commercially proven in grassroots applications, revamps of semi regenerative reforming units and replacement of other isomerization technologies. This flexible process utilizes a robust platinum-containing mixed-metal oxide SI-2™ catalyst that works effectively at the low temperatures of 120-140°C (250-285°F) while delivering great stability against the influence of catalytic poisons. Isomalk-2 is a competitive alternative to the three most commonly used light-gasoline isomerization processes: zeolite, chlorinated aluminum oxide and sulfated zirconium oxide catalysts. This technology has been commercialized in all possible modes of configuration. By applying the full recycle configuration, an isomerate with a 92.5 RON value has been achieved in a world-scale reference unit.

Process Overview

Isomalk-2 offers refiners a cost-effective isomerization option that consistently demonstrates reliable performance with all standard process configurations, including:

  • Once-through isomerization
  • Once-through with prefeed deisopentanizer
  • Recycle of low-octane pentanes and hexanes
  • Full recycle of all nonbranched paraffins and prefeed deisopentanizer
  • Each scheme generates different yield and octane results. The following examples are for an LSR (Light Straight Run) process stream but may also be applied to a condensate stream or some LSR/condensate combinations.

Each scheme generates different yield and octane results. The following examples are for a LSR (Light Straight Run) process stream, but may also be applied to a condensate stream or some LSR/condensate combinations.

Once-Through Isomerization

In a once-through isomerization process scheme, the LSR is mixed with hydrogen make-up gas. The mixture is then heated and enters a first reactor where benzene saturation and partial isomerization take place.

The gas-product mixture exits the first reactor, is cooled and then fed to a second reactor to complete the isomerization reaction at chemical equilibrium. The product mixture from the second reactor is cooled and fed to a gas separator, where the mixture is separated from the excess hydrogen gas. Excess hydrogen is combined with make-up hydrogen and fed through the recycle dryers for blending with feed. No hydrocarbon feed drying is required. Saturated isomerate from the separator is heated and fed to the stabilizer. The stabilizer’s overhead vapors are cooled and fed to a reflux drum. Liquid hydrocarbons from the reflux are returned to the stabilizer as reflux, while uncondensed light hydrocarbons are separated and sent to the off-gas system. The bottom product or isomerate is cooled and sent to gasoline blending.

Recycle of Low-Octane Pentanes and Hexanes

In an isomerization process scheme with recycle of low-octane pentanes and/or hexanes, the isomerate is produced and then fed to a fractionation column(s). Overhead and bottoms isomerate streams are cooled and sent to gasoline blending. A low-octane C5 and/or C6 isomerate stream is recycled back to the isomerization reactor.

Prefractionation With Recycle of Low-Octane Hexanes

Prefractionation with low-octane recycle can utilize all of the above methods: prefractionation, isomerization, and postfractionation. The prefractionation step consists of deisopentanization of the feed and/or C7+ separation. The postfractionation step consists of separating the high-octane portion of the C5-C6 isomerate and recycling the low-octane C6 isomerate stream.

Advantages

The SI-2 catalyst provides high conversion rates and a close approach to thermal equilibrium at low temperatures. Key to the technology is the fact that the SI-2 catalyst exhibits superior activity alongside stability, simplicity and safety in operation. Features of the Isomalk-2 technology include:

  • Process capability to produce 81-93 RON
  • Low operating costs
  • Regenerable catalyst with superior tolerance to process impurities and water
  • No chloride addition or caustic treatment needed; no wastes produced
  • Mass yield > 98%, volume yield up to 100%
  • Up to 5-6 year cycles between regenerations
  • Guaranteed service life of SI-2 catalyst of 10+ years
  • Reduced hydrogen consumption

 

 

Isomalk-3

Isomalk-3 is a low-temperature isomerization technology for processing n-butane into isobutane (i-butane), its branched polymer. Isobutane is an important intermediate required for the production of isobutylene or alkylate. Isobutylene can be used to produce MTBE or other high-value petrochemicals such as isoprene through a synthetic on-purpose route.

The Isomalk-3 technology is based on the use of a mixed-metal oxide SI-3™ catalyst with high selectivity to i-butane. Operating at a temperature of 150-170°C (302-338°F), the yield and operating expenses are optimized. The expected lifetime of the SI-3 catalyst is over 10 years. The process eliminates the need for chlorine injection, off-gas caustic scrubbing and associated equipment expenses. Water, sulfur and nitrogen specs for the feed are significantly lowered. Breakthrough of these contaminants is permissible, and catalyst activity can be restored via “in-situ” catalyst regeneration. As with the other catalysts associated with the Isomalk family, operation is simple and reliable; startup, turnaround and shutdown times are minimal due to the high resistance to catalytic poisons and, most important, water.

Configuration Overview

Isomalk-3 can achieve high conversion to isobutane while significantly reducing equipment needs, and it is the only available nonchlorinated process based on n-C4 isomerization technology that has been commercially successful. The SI-3 catalyst provides a close approach to thermal equilibrium at low temperatures and exhibits outstanding stability, simplicity and safety in operation. Isomalk-3 can efficiently separate out C5+ from feeds in a dividing-wall-column deisobutanizer that allows for greater feedstock flexibility. The process can be adapted for reverse isomerization of i-butane to n-butane as well.

The process requires a one-reactor configuration and eliminates the chemical consumption of organochlorides and caustic for operation. Cooling water or refrigerant serves as a medium to recover i-C4 and n-C4 in the stabilizer overhead, depending on the available utilities on site. The subsequent integration of the i-butane with downstream dehydrogenation technology allows the optimal recovery of all products of the isomerization reaction, heat integration, minimized OSBL requirements and plot plan.

Advantages

Isomalk-3 is the only available nonchlorinated process for n-C4 isomerization that is commercially successful. The SI-3 catalyst provides a close approach to thermal equilibrium at low temperatures and exhibits outstanding stability, simplicity and safety in operation. Features of Isomalk-3 include:

  •  Low operating and capital costs
  • No chloride addition or caustic treatment needed; no wastes produced
  • Regenerable catalyst (SI-3) – ease of operation and long service life of 10+ years
  • Robust design – highly tolerant to process fluctuations resulting in 48 to 60 months between catalyst regeneration
  • High conversion per pass – results in process configuration with only one reactor
  • High selectivity – low hydrogen consumption
  • Low-hydrogen partial-pressure requirement – no recycle gas compressor or separator

Isomalk-4

Isomalk-4 is a low-temperature isomerization technology for processing C7 paraffins contained in wide-range naphtha streams. In a conventional refinery configuration, C7 paraffins are distributed to the C5-C6 isomerization unit and the reformer. These components tend to reduce the overall yield of the liquid products, to lower RON of the gasoline and to form unwanted amounts of benzene.

This innovative process allows isomerization of the hydrocarbon stream to achieve a low-RVP gasoline component with 84-86 RON while improving the operation of the other naphtha-processing units. By applying Isomalk-4, the wide-range naphtha can yield over 90 wt% liquid having a 95-98 RON, with benzene content < 0.6 vol.% — meeting required gasoline specifications without any additional blending.

The inclusion of Isomalk-4 in the refinery configuration gives a 2.1 wt%. gain of liquids, a higher 1.5 RON value, and lower overall benzene and aromatics. The SI-4™ catalyst provides high conversion rates and approaches thermal equilibrium at low temperatures. The SI-4 catalyst exhibits superior activity alongside stability, simplicity and safety in operation. Features of the Isomalk-4 technology include:

  • Process capability to produce 84-86 RON from the standalone unit
  • Low operating costs
  • Regenerable catalyst with superior tolerance to process impurities and water
  • No chloride addition or caustic treatment needed; no wastes produced
  • Mass yield > 93%
  • Service life of SI-4 catalyst: 8-10 years
MaxFlux®
Figure 1. MaxFlux Reaction Zone Configuration. A liquid recycle is used to deliver hydrogen and pre-heat the hydrocarbon feed.

MaxFlux Renewable Diesel

The Next Generation of Hydrotreating

MaxFlux® Advanced Hydrotreating Technology is a novel alternative to traditional hydroprocessing. The hydrotreating reactors operate in a high mass ux mode that removes the mass transfer limitation and eliminates the need for large volumes of hydrogen recycle gas as a quench uid.  Instead, hydrogen is dissolved in a recycle liquid stream to deliver more hydrogen to the reactor and stabilize temperature uctuations (Figure 1). As a result, installation of MaxFlux instead of conventional hydrotreating offers signicant capital cost savings, improved yields, and longer catalyst life.

Over the full range of hydrocarbons, MaxFlux can be installed as a grass roots hydrotreating unit or as a revamp in a pretreat conguration. In pre-treating, the MaxFlux reactor accomplishes most of the necessary hydrotreatment, reducing the demand in the existing conventional reactor, which will then operate in a polishing mode. As a result, catalyst deactivation due to coking in the conventional reactor is greatly reduced.

Figure 2. MaxFlux installed as a pretreat reactor in an existing hydrotreater

Process Advantages

  • Lower total capital investment
  • Lower operating expense
  • Longer catalyst life
  • Higher yields

BioFlux is offered by Sulzer GTC in cooperation with Duke Technologies.

Proposals Technical and Feasibility Studies

Proposals, Technical and Feasibility Studies

 

Sulzer GTC’s proposals, technical, and feasibility studies empower clients to make informed decisions on technical and economical aspects of upcoming projects, new technologies, and processing schemes.

Our technical proposals and feasibility studies include:

  • General overview of our technologies with comparative evaluation versus other similar processing options
  • Preliminary technical information related to material and heat balance
  • Product quality
  • Utility and energy consumption
  • Information related to all categories of waste and corresponding disposal methods
  • Sized equipment list
  • Preliminary plot area required and equipment arrangement
  • Estimates of chemical, solvent, or catalyst first charge and annual consumption
  • Economic evaluation from simple estimated investment cost of the facilities included in the project scope
  • Detailed production cost or cash flow calculations included in addition to the technical portion of each documentation

Our proposals and feasibility studies can be provided for a single case all the way to an extended comparative analysis based on different feed options, plant locations, plant capacities, or production profiles.  We can also provide proposals and feasibility studies for different scopes of work including the main processing plant as well as various auxiliary facilities required for the operation of the plant, grassroots units, or revamps of existing facilities.

When a revamp case is evaluated, the engineering documentation includes information related to the reuse of existing equipment, a list of required new equipment, a list of idled equipment, comparative data related to increased capacity, improved product quality, and improved energy consumption of the revamped facility.

During the proposal or feasibility study preparation, Sulzer GTC works closely with clients every step of the way to ensure that goals are met.  Visits prior to the start of engineering work as well as a presentations and supporting activities during customer evaluation of our documentation are provided.

Technical Services

Technical Services

 

Sulzer GTC’s technical service team offers:

  • Process specific training for your operating and engineering staff
  • Plant inspection to ensure compliance with Sulzer GTC’s design requirements
  • Guidance on developing plant specific operating procedures
  • On-site advisory services 24 hours a day, 7 days a week during the pre-commissioning, commissioning, start-up, and initial operating phases of plant operation
  • Direction to enable safe achievement of full-scale production in a timely manner
  • Assistance in conducting performance guarantee test runs
  • On-going support in maintaining optimum process performance

Training is key to successfully adopting and implementing new technology.  Sulzer GTC’s training courses are designed to enable our licensees to commission and operate their plants safely and efficiently.  Utilizing customized operating guidelines developed by GTC, our classroom training courses provide in-depth coverage of the following topics:

  • Process fundamentals & operating variables
  • Startup and shutdown procedures
  • Troubleshooting guidelines
  • Process safety

Additional training needs are discussed with our licensees on a case-by-case basis and enhanced support is provided by Sulzer GTC as required.

Sulzer GTC also participates in HAZOP studies in conjunction with our proprietary technologies.  HAZOP evaluations can be carried out at a client site, contractor site or in Sulzer GTC’s offices. Technical recommendations are based on our most recent units in operation while also incorporating the most up-to-date improvements in safe operation of plants.

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